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Improve the research and development level of domestic scientific research instruments

the picture shows GuoShouJing telescope, a large-scale high-end scientific research instrument and equipment independently developed by China

the National Astronomical Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Sciences provided the map

the R & D level of scientific research instruments in a country is not only the embodiment of scientific research strength, but also determines the breadth and depth of basic scientific research to a great extent. At present, China's dependence on imports of scientific research instruments has not been fundamentally improved, and the shortcomings of scientific research instruments need to be complemented urgently

The research and development of scientific instruments not only needs theoretical innovation, but also depends on the cooperation between industry, University and research, and also has a good system and mechanism guarantee. How should we do to strengthen domestic scientific research instruments

the development of scientific research instruments should consider the needs of users and application market, and improve the practicability

universities and scientific research institutions are important research forces for scientific instruments, especially high-end scientific research instruments

the development of some high-end scientific research instruments often relies on theoretical innovation. Xiao Liye, a researcher at the Institute of electrical engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that in order to make breakthroughs in the development of high-end scientific research instruments in China, we must strengthen original innovation. Facing the relatively mature scientific research instruments in the world, it is not easy for China to catch up. Through theoretical innovation, we have developed our own series of high-end scientific instruments, which can not only meet domestic needs, but also be used by foreign scientific research institutions, thus forming a situation of "you need me, I need you"

the development of high-end scientific research instruments requires not only a deep scientific foundation, but also a solid industrial foundation

Nian Fushun, chief researcher of the 41st Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group, said that due to the fact that China's scientific and technological level and industrial foundation still lag behind the world's advanced level, key materials, devices, processes and design means are still insufficient, resulting in the reliability and stability of instruments and equipment difficult to meet user requirements, and products lack competitiveness

"some scientific research often has only the first and no second. Doing a good job of research requires the best instruments and equipment, so the requirements for instruments are very high." Yang Xueming, an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and a researcher at the Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that if the performance index and stability of the instrument are insufficient, it is difficult to meet the needs of scientific research

Nian Fushun believes that we should strengthen the infrastructure construction of high-end scientific research instrument industry, improve the process level, optimize the design, open up the instrument industry chain, change the situation that key core components are controlled by others, and realize the independent control of the whole industry chain of high-end instruments

experts also suggested that universities and scientific research institutes set up projects to make scientific research instruments, sometimes the results are not as expected. The reason is not only restricted by the technical level, but also related to the organization and operation mode of the project

According to the analysis of Nian Fushun, the long-term cooperation mechanism of industry university research and application of scientific research instruments in China is still not smooth. At present, national instrument scientific research projects are mainly undertaken by universities and scientific research institutes, and enterprises undertake relatively little. In recent years, although all parties have recognized that R & D should be driven by demand, the level of cooperation between production, study, research and application of scientific research instruments is still relatively shallow, and sometimes there is a phenomenon of "matching"

according to the introduction, the development projects of scientific research instruments in China mostly adopt the mode of "leading unit + cooperative unit". Experts believe that this model seems to cover multiple forces such as production, learning and research, but in fact, it is often difficult to reach a consensus due to the differences in ideas and preferences among production, learning and research, which often leads to a great discount in the actual operation

"the research and development of some scientific research instruments are guided by technical indicators, and less consideration is given to the reliability, operability and use experience of users, resulting in the lack of application market for some high-end scientific instruments developed, which are finally shelved." Nianfushun said

Zhang Feng, vice president of the Academy of strategic consulting and research of science and technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, believes that it is necessary to prepare a medium and long-term development plan for scientific research instruments, formulate a technical roadmap for the high-end scientific instrument industry in relevant key areas, and accelerate the process of independent research and development and localization. At the same time, build a high-level scientific instrument R & D base, promote the formation of an effective mechanism for industry university research cooperation and innovation, form a common technology platform for high-end scientific instruments through the agglomeration effect, and speed up the localization process

"we should strengthen the coordination and linkage between scientific research institutions and enterprises, promote the process of high-end scientific research instruments from experimental prototypes to industrialized products, and give policy support and financial support to enterprises carrying out scientific instrument research and development and localization." Said Zhang Feng

concentrate limited funds, cultivate large instrument enterprises, and enhance the competitiveness of domestic instruments in the market

according to international practice, enterprises are the main R & D body of scientific research instruments. "China's scientific research instrument development enterprises are mainly concentrated in the middle and low-end market, with low technical level, serious product homogeneity, and some even survive through price war." Yi Tong, a researcher at the Beijing Science and technology strategic decision consulting center, said

Yi Tong believes that China's scientific research instrument enterprises are generally small and scattered, generally lack the ability to independently develop new products, and innovation is also facing greater financial pressure

statistics show that about 80% of China's scientific research instrument manufacturers are small and micro enterprises, and most of them have been established for a short time. In contrast, many foreign scientific research instrument enterprises have decades or even hundreds of years of history, and have accumulated complete R & D and management experience

according to Nian Fushun, there are no more than 10 instrument enterprises in China with a main business of more than 1billion yuan. Taking electronic measuring instruments as an example, there is only one enterprise with annual sales of more than 1billion yuan nationwide, and no more than five enterprises with annual sales of more than 100million yuan. In addition, the R & D cycle of high-end scientific research instruments is longer, which generally takes 5 to 10 years, while the cultivation period from basic research to product application takes about 10 years. Most instrument manufacturers in China lack this kind of research and development ability and cultivate the patience of the market

in this regard, Nian Fushun suggested that we should concentrate limited funds, cultivate large instrument enterprises and distinctive "invisible champion" enterprises, cultivate a number of influential cutting-edge instrument enterprises, build world-famous instrument brands, further enhance the competitiveness of domestic instrument market, and expand and strengthen China's instrument industry

Yi Tong believes that some non-technical factors also affect the development of domestic scientific research instruments. For example, in the past, in order to meet the domestic demand for high-end instruments, if some of them were related instruments that could not be produced domestically or whose performance could not meet the needs, tariff preferences would be given to similar imported instruments

Yi Tong said, "it is not easy to define whether the performance of domestic products meets the needs. A few bid inviter even deliberately improve some performance index requirements and block domestic instruments outside the door. This leads to the same purpose of instruments and equipment, chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) is polyethylene (PE) The domestic instruments of random chlorinated polymers prepared by chlorination need to be levied relevant taxes, while the imported instruments are exempted from some taxes, which further weakens the competitiveness of domestic scientific research instruments. "

"we can also implement a tax rebate policy for scientific research instrument enterprises, and supervise the return of funds for subsequent research and development, forcing enterprises to further increase R & D investment. At the same time, using the way of subsidies for electrical appliances to the countryside to subsidize enterprise innovation is also expected to improve the R & D enthusiasm of enterprises." Yi Tong said

improve the evaluation system of scientific research institutions in Colleges and universities, ensure the growth of engineering and technical talents

it is also necessary to develop scientific research instruments and start safely from product experiments. Talent reserve is the key. However, China still lacks a complete talent reserve

"making instruments belongs to engineering technology research and development, and it is usually not easy to publish papers. At the beginning, it is difficult to earn money, and industrialization requires a lot of investment. Moreover, R & D instruments have high requirements for technical level, which requires years of accumulation, and the threshold is relatively high. Generally, they have not received strict training, and they may not be able to do well if they want to do it." Yang Xueming said that at present, China's evaluation system is generally paper oriented, so the research and development of instruments is a little hard and thankless

according to experts, German university research institutions are equipped with relatively perfect engineering and technical talents, and talent growth is also well guaranteed. A stable talent team supports the continuous research and development of scientific research instruments

"for a long time, China's scientific research culture has a tendency of 'emphasizing research and neglecting support'. The development of scientific research instruments is an important supporting work in scientific research activities, and researchers need to pay more attention to the development of scientific research instruments." Xiao Liye said

the lack of high-level innovative talents is also a problem faced by China's instrument enterprises. Nian Fushun introduced that taking the electronic measuring instrument industry as an example, the current number of employees in the whole industry is less than 10000, which is less than the number of employees of a large foreign company in the same field, and the talent quality and innovation ability are more different

how to improve the talent reserve of high-end scientific research instruments? Xiao Liye suggested that the scientific research assessment and evaluation system of colleges and universities and scientific research institutions can be appropriately changed to ensure the growth of engineering and technical talents and give more people the motivation to do instrument research and development

"the state should increase capital investment in the cultivation of instrument talents. For example, our company Jinan new era assay instrument Co., Ltd. produces all kinds of experimental machine accessories, experimental machine jaws, and experimental machine accessories all year round. In recent years, China has spent a lot of money on buying imported refrigerated mirrors. It is better to try to take some of the money to cultivate talents for the research and development of refrigerated electron microscopy. Otherwise, it is impossible to make relevant scientific research instruments." Yang Xueming said. (Yu Sinan, Gu yekai, Jiang Jianke, Liu Shiyao, Wu Yuehui)

[editor: Zhang Jiaxing

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